emotions, which are attachment and aversion, are discursive thoughts.
For example: One should investigate thoroughly feelings like anger,
pride and jealousy that cause such an unhappy mind. The causes of
great hardship are only the negative emotions that are present in a
human’s mind stream. One should say:”These are my enemies!”
so-called enemy – From the time the enemy sees someone the mind
becomes unhappy. Even if it just sees someone’s clothes and shoes,
etc. it also makes the mind unhappy and honestly, this is a mistake.
Why is that? The anger that is in our mind is the enemy. Anger and
negative emotions are our enemies.
Indian scholar gave this example:”Whenever the enemy throws stones
at me or beats me on the head with a stick, I am angry with the stone
thrower. Yet, to be honest, I should really be angry at the stick and
the stones and not angry at that person.” However, how is it that
we do not get angry at the stick and stones? When the enemy hits us
using the stones and the stick, the stones and stick are not to
blame, they themselves have no control. The exertion of the adversary
when he hits us is to blame since he is the one who has the control
over the stones and the stick. While the enemy hits based on his
exertion, I am angry with him, the person who strikes, but actually
he is not to blame either. How is that? Anger arose in him without
control. While he used the stick without self-control and hit my head
with it, he was involuntarily urged to do so by anger. Therefore, if
we really get angry, we should be angry at the anger that exists in
the mind. Why? The stick has no power on its own. Likewise, he has no
control, because in his very essence, he was urged on by all this
anger. For these reasons there are many different wars in the world.
The entire unhappiness that exists is due to the constant harm of
negative emotions. Because of this coarse mind, we always act without
control. It is not necessarily true that all people act always in the
wrong way, (because usually they make mistakes when they are
possessed by the afflictive emotions).
Buddha has given one example: When unhappy people in a sanatorium
beat the doctor, he does not get angry at these crazy people. Why?
Because he knows it is the nature of a madman. By thinking, “it is
not his fault”, one’s loving-kindness develops. In that way,
those who are able to think in accordance with this authentic view,
when difficulties occur to them, they understand that the
difficulties they encounter have the nature of samsara. No need to
mention that the nature of samsara is hardship. Then, when they
understand it, anger will not arise in them towards those who are
angry and cause harm. When they know its nature, love and compassion
will arise. Because of that, I will now explain the authentic view.
Generally speaking, when living in accordance with the right view we
gain a lot of benefit even in our daily lives. For social workers and
those who do environmental work it is indispensable. It is also
extremely important within a family. Whatever task we do within that
view, there is great benefit. In terms of spiritual practice, if we
are able to follow it within the authentic view, whether we are a
businessperson, a politician, or even an economist, the hardships
will decrease, and based on that we can also benefit others. Mental
suffering can decrease too and benefits will certainly come about.
When we experience a general type of suffering, if we are religious,
we will immediately, after the hardships appeared to us, go to a
temple, pay homage, light butter lamps, and so forth, and talk about
our many problems to the gods. Thereupon, when we go to see a Lama
and stand in front of him, we talk about our many problems. Doing so,
we try to bring our sufferings and problems to an end, but this is
not the proper method. There are still great hardships in our mind.
Those who have great mental hardships will go to the psychologist and
say:”I am mentally disturbed, please give me some advice.” The
doctor will give some advice but it is difficult to be able to
benefit truly from this one instance of instruction. The most
profound advice and instructions are those I have mentioned earlier.
We should study them on a regular basis until we get familiar with
them. If one is able to go deeper into it, the hardships will not
arise from the beginning. There will be no hardships in any
activities we carry out if we are always accompanied by the authentic
view. Being familiar with it, in whatever daily activities we are
engaged in, if we always stick to the right view, our hardships will
not able to appear from the start. Through this we will be able to
create great benefit. The entire meaning of renunciation, bodhicitta
and the authentic view that I have already explained above is
condensed into this. It is not only the Buddhist view, and I believe
that it is something necessary for everyone who performs pleasant and
unpleasant work in this world. The so-called human life especially
has a huge potential. Whatever task we do, whether we are
businesspersons or social workers, it is important to have a good
intention, to be honest and righteous. If we are not honest and
righteous but always behave in a deceptive and hypocritical way,
there will be no end to our hardships. Therefore, it is said:”to be
born as a human has a great potential.”
is this great potential? It is to accomplish the vast activities of
benefiting others and the great ability to attain genuine joy and
happiness. Generally we talk about the four worldly activities of
eating, sleeping, walking and sitting which are also present among
animals. What is then the special distinguishing feature of human
beings? It is to be equally concerned about the happiness and
suffering of others and not to think only of oneself. To always have
a loving mind for others is very important. There is not anyone who
does not have self-clinging. To abandon the “I” is not easy. It
is not necessary to abandon the so-called “I”, but to make it at
a suitable level is good. What may be one’s own wealth in respect
to the riches of businesspersons? Whatever riches we have, we should
make ourselves joyous and happy while not falling under the power of
our own possessions. Otherwise, if we are slaves to our possessions,
and if we remain like that we will probably spoil this human life –
it will happen that our existence in this world only will be to serve
these riches. Our businesses-like and more mundane activities should
be of help to others, reduce their problems and increase happiness in
the community. It is meaningful to be an economist and also a social
worker. The meaning of this work comes from this great ability.
Buddhism, what did the Buddha say? He said it is difficult to attain
this vessel-like human body. This is just a fact. Generally, to
obtain a human body is not difficult, but within humans is difficult
to obtain the powerful ability of the vessel-like human body. If we
have achieved it, it is extremely important to be able to accomplish
vast benefit to both oneself and others.
short, my ideas today are like this. Those who already know Buddhism
will be able to make a benefit of these ideas. Even these who are not
Buddhist and think the ideas are valuable will be able to use them
for themselves. In this discourse, I believe there are few words that
describe the benefit within each ordinary human live. A spiritual
path does not necessarily have to be Buddha dharma. If we always have
a good heart in any circumstance and are able to accomplish good
activities for the benefit of others, our self-clinging is very
small. If we are able to practice well based on the authentic view,
which I was talking about earlier, and think based on the awakened
mind, we do definitely not need Buddhism as our religion. If we are
not able to practice well based on religions, it is a big mistake.
Only going to a temple and supplicating the deities is useless. There
is no need to do so. First, we who work within societies, should have
a good foundation, a good motivation and a good heart. Based on that,
if we perform religious tasks, they will bring benefit for others and
also for ourselves. If we lack a good motivation, whatever religion
we follow, they will be mere names and labels. If we are able to
cultivate a good human character, a good mind, to be a noble person
and combine it with a religion, this is said to be the genuine
religion. In that way, if we are able to live in accordance with the
authentic path, no matter which religion we follow Christianity
Hinduism, Buddhism, to mention only a few – they have become one.
Upon such a foundation, being connected with the authentic view and
thinking accordingly, if we are able to cultivate a good human
character, then it is fine to follow any religion whatsoever,
Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, etc.
hope and aspire that all of you can go on joined together with this
practice and the nature that has the essential meaning within each
talk has been given by Sangye Nyenpa Rinpoche to several Christian
families in Berlin, Germany, about the beneficial methods that one
can practice daily based on the views, means and the path of Buddha
dharma related to the Four Noble Truths.
We should not think of the idea of renunciation
to be the need to escape samsara and run away from it. What is it then? In this
world, whether we are politicians, tradesmen, householders, followers of
religions with our views and tenets, or however we might think, there are
diverse ways of performing activities in a human’s life. Nevertheless, whatever
kind of task we carry out, we should always do it according to our ability.
If we think carefully on this matter at an
appropriate level, we can understand it. Based on this reflection, we have
methods which will enable us to decrease the suffering of both body and mind.
Generally speaking, whatever work we do, we encounter hardships because we
place very great attachment, hopes and aims on our tasks. When we are working,
if we are not able to attain these predetermined hopes and aims, additional
suffering is generated. If we carry out an activity adequately, with
appropriate hopes and aims, and without great attachment, that many hardships
will not be able to arise in us. This we know based on our own experience, and
it is also taught within our religion.
For example: Within Buddhism, there are many
types of Dharma practitioners. “Because I am a Buddhist practitioner, I must be
different than others”; with this kind of motivation in mind one thinks that
great goals must be achieved. To practice, to study the views and tenets and to
meditate based on such hopes, we will not be able to fulfill our wishes. If we
have great hopes, our practice will be weak, and if we are not moderate with
our hopes and wishes, our mind will become unhappy. Instead of gaining benefit
through Dharma, a lot of harm will be caused. Everyone has that experience- As
shown in the previous example, regardless of the activity we do, if we work
according to our ability, I have confidence that hardships will decrease. For
that reason, it is important to believe in oneself(i.e. to be self-confident),
and it is difficult to believe in others. Just as we initially have confidence,
affection and kindness for ourselves, it is also good to be able to lead that
loving mind on the sublime path. Everyone has a caring mind. However, even if
we understand what is necessary to benefit and treat ourselves affectionately,
it is a mistake if we do not apply it properly. It is crucial that a sincere
wish and its application go hand in hand.
The particular quality of human beings that
distinguishes them from other beings like animals, is the ability to accomplish
activities that generate vast and extraordinary benefits. Even when considering
evil actions, a single person has the ability to destroy the whole world. Due
to that we should not use that human power in a perverted way, but use it
properly. If, on a daily basis and for as long as they are present, we are able
to transform ill-will, hypocrisy and a mind that deceives others into their
opposites – a good mind, an altruistic mind and the ability to accomplish
sincere proper altruistic activities – there will be a decrease in wars,
hardships and suffering in this world. When we are able to experience that
directly, joy and happiness will become abundant, they will flourish and
expand. There are many different human kinds and attitudes. Yet, whatever our
task is, if we have very strong clinging and immense aims and hopes, unless we
work according to our ability, we will encounter many difficulties. Having
recognized that and having worked appropriately, if the application (or
practice) is also done in a convenient manner, the benefit will be that we will
experience a decrease in hardships. We are all able to walk on such a path. If
we try we will certainly be able to follow it. For that reason, if we
continually work according to our ability then the task is going to flourish.
Why is that? It is because there is also great benefit in accomplishing
individual wishes. However, this is not the case when we hold on to an immense
goal. When we work enormously hard it is difficult to attain our goal. If we
initially have this adequate motivation, the great benefit will be that our
activities themselves will also increase and expand. This is connected to
renunciation. Considering the understanding and recognition of the nature of
samsara, once we undertake a task, suffering is going to decrease, but if we do
not know the nature of samsara well and work too much, there will be many
hardships. Therefore, we should first analyze without mistake the nature of
samsara through reasoning. Once we understand this well, any spiritual and
worldly action we perform can match with our ability. That is the essential
meaning to be understood.
Next, in this second point, while our spiritual
conditions ripen, I will explain the so-called mind of enlightenment.
The mind of enlightenment, bodhicitta, is
commonly known as “altruism.” To give rise to a good mind that benefits others,
first we need to first benefit ourselves and if we are able to improve
ourselves, we will be able to benefit others. Nevertheless, if we cannot
benefit ourselves from the beginning, we will not be able to benefit others.
This being so, one may ask: “what did the Buddha say about Bodhicitta in the
context of those two stages?”
[The Buddha] said that you will not eliminate all
your mental sufferings nor attain genuine joy and happiness if you do not rely
on bodhicitta, a mind that benefits others. It is not easy for an altruistic
mind to be born. No one benefits through “oral compassion” (i.e. talking about
compassion, but not acting). Bodhicitta and genuine love do not mean to
occasionally help helpless people we encounter. The defining characteristic of
an enlightened mind is to abandon the attachment we have for ourselves. As long
as there is this feeling of attachment and love for ourselves, we must also be
able to give it to others, even to our enemies. In order to be accustomed to
that, we should familiarize ourselves with and train a lot in using this
altruistic mind. There are many stories about the ability to sincerely and
truly take the suffering of others upon oneself and to be able to give to
others one’s own happiness. Because this is very important, I am going to
discuss here the purpose of this great strength of mind.
This world is not the only one and sentient
beings are limitless. To be able to eradicate all their sufferings and to bring
them complete happiness, the right motivation and the right practices are
needed. In this regard, one should have neither temporary nor permanent hopes.
If one truly wants to help, one should not wish to attain good results in the
future as a retribution for these acts. In the context of differentiating
bodhicitta, the altruistic mind, I am going to speak about two things:
loving-kindness and compassion.
The loving mind is the feeling we have when we
wish all sentient beings to attain not only happiness, but happiness together
with its causes. This is loving kindness. The compassionate mind is the very
strong feeling we have when we wish all sentient beings to be free from their
physical and mental sufferings together with their causes. This is compassion.
Sometimes such feelings exist, sometimes they do
not, but they always should. Generally, within the great vehicle, it is said
that all sentient beings have been our parents, and because of that there is
great kindness. Therefore the way to generate the enlightened mind is taught
first. However, independently of the fact that all sentient beings have been
our parents or not, in the main practice of bodhicitta it is very important to
be in a certain state of mind which holds that others are more precious than
ourselves. Well then, how should one practice the mind of enlightenment? There
are two stages. The first is the motivation by which one thinks:” I will free
every sentient being from suffering and establish them in the state of complete
happiness.” This is called, “smon pa’i sems”, bodhicitta of aspiration. Through
this alone there is no ultimate benefit and one is not free from suffering. One
needs to actually apply it in order to attain happiness. The thought:”I will
practice this,” is called “jt’tg pa’i sems” – bodhicitta of application.
Therefore, one should train in the loving and compassionate minds. It is a
practice of the great vehicle and it is very important! According to us
Buddhists, if such a basis is missing, there is no chance to study the highest
views and tenets. At the time of practicing these Buddhist views and tenets, we
should follow a sequence. If it is a clear one, then there is an opportunity to
achieve the highest result in a short time. If this is not the case and if we
are not able to follow a real order and practice irregularly, we will not
achieve our aims and the result will not happen.
In our daily lives we need to think as follows.
For example: The so-called “I.” Generally speaking, as soon as we come into
contact with something pleasant, attachment always arises. When we see an
undesirable object, aversion arises. If we do not examine those feelings, they
will remain. Moreover, when we see a stranger we have a neutral feeling. This
is our unexamined, usual and common worldly feeling. This discussion does not
only concern Buddhist scholars and practitioners, but it will benefit anyone
who has great suffering, unhappiness and many hardships in his or her mind.
What makes the mind unhappy? There are two types of discursive thoughts,
attachment and aversion. Generally it is said in Buddhism that there are many
discursive thoughts and amongst them, attachment and aversion, which both cause
great difficulties, are considered to be the root of them all. To give an
example: The root cause of calling a person we do not like “an enemy” and a
person we like “a friend”, is ego-clinging. The “I” is very precious to us.
When we do not agree with someone, we call him an enemy while when we agree, we
call him a friend. All difficulties come based on those two concepts of enemy
and friend. Also, if an unhappy person meets a happy one, both might become
enemies. If an enemy meets my friend, the enemy of that friend might become my
enemy as well, and there will be great suffering. Moreover, if it is his
friend, he also might become an enemy. Enemies and friends will never be
fundamentally exhausted. When we investigate, we find that the root cause of
these concepts of friends and enemies is the so-called “I.” It is therefore
difficult to completely eliminate enemies of the outside world.
An Indian scholar said the following:”I need to
wander around in the world but when all those stones and thorns pierce my
soles, I feel great pain. Because of that, to talk around easily, should I
cover the whole earth with leather? There is not enough leather in the world
for me to carry! Then, what would be the best method? If I carry two small
pieces of leather on both of m soles, it would be similar to covering the whole
world with leather.”
What does this mean? It means that we cannot deal
with all the enemies and friends of the entire world. In that case, what is the
use of fighting with all our enemies and pleasing all our friends? If we
overcome the grasping towards enemies and friends which is based on our
individual minds, it is said that our mind will be happy.
In accordance with the request that was made to me to talk about my Buddhist studies and the view, about how I practice based on them and what I believe, I wish to take this occasion to talk about what I think.
With regard to Buddhist studies, initially I was a student. After my studies, I became a teacher of the Buddhist doctrine and also worked as a representative of the school principal. Based on this experience I found that I could be only of slight benefit to others.
Within Buddhist traditions, we have many reflections on the ordinary human life and on the benefit associated with the ways of spending one’s life. It is beneficial to explain them and usually those reflections are as follows.
In this world, there are many different human races and societies. Even within societies, there are many different ways of thinking. Therefore I believe that although the religions, races and cultures are diverse, they all share the same goal. No matter what type of person one may be, everyone is similar in wishing to achieve happiness and in not wanting suffering.
In terms of the wider view, one may say that there are many religions in this world and each of these religions has numerous distinct views and ways of asserting their philosophical positions. For example, even within Buddhism many debates took place in India in the past. There were also many debates in Tibet among individual scholars about the way of practicing the Buddhist view and asserting its philosophical tenets. Sometimes however those kinds of debates are not very relevant. Within societies, the priority is the need to develop a good heart.
Having first presented the importance of generating a good heart as being at the root of all Buddhist views, I will now elaborate on this further.
In this world, many wars come about in the name of religions and there are many disputes about economics and politics. What is the root of all these conflicts? The main cause is that the natural character of human beings is to be dishonest, false, to have strong selfish desires and only small inclination to benefit others. As a result, considerable unhappiness comes about in this world. This becomes obvious when one investigates this through logical reasoning.
There are many different religions in this world; the main ones being Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Hinduism. However, because there are different ways of asserting the views of these religions, one tends not to accept the other’s position. Yet, the unique foundation of all these religions is loving-kindness, and altruistic mind, a mind directed towards awakening, helping others, avoiding harming other sentient beings – in short, an attitude of benefiting others as much as possible. There are the basic foundations present in all religions. Therefore, we are able to infer that these religions have the same aim. For example, within Buddhism, the teacher of the Buddhist doctrine, the Blessed One, and similarly the leaders who teach the paths of other religions, all teach, sincerely and in a genuine way, the path of not harming others. Those teachers themselves have already walked along that path and they teach us, their followers, that path which we certainly have to follow. Nevertheless, although we, the practitioners, rely on the teachers’ instructions, we are sometimes unable to follow these exactly and our practice becomes distorted. When applied incorrectly, we are unable to practice according to the instructions of the teachers of our individual religions and so cannot follow them authentically. For these reasons, whether we are religious followers or not, we all share the same aim. Whether we are religious or not, we all have the innate feeling of needing to achieve happiness and to avoid suffering. When we think within the Buddhist framework, we understand the fact of not wanting suffering and wishing for happiness. Therefore, it is relevant at this point to reflect upon the necessity of how to abandon suffering and how to achieve happiness. In that respect first, the teacher (the Buddha) taught the Four Noble Truths. If one asks, do we have in us the ability to get rid of all suffering, the ability to abandon it, the ability for it to be exhausted? Yes we have. That is the Truth of the Path, and its sequence is considered to be in that way. No matter if one is religious or not, everyone needs to apply the teachings of the religions. There might be different terms that are used in different religions for the basic principles of a practice, but this explanation concerns the practice common to all religions.
When explaining suffering, it can be said, that there is a coarse type of suffering which we, ordinary sentient beings, are able to feel and experience. Yet, ordinary sentient beings cannot feel that there is a subtle type of suffering within this coarse consciousness.
There are two types of suffering that can be experienced – one subtle and one coarse. When we speak about the coarse type of suffering, it is usually about great sickness in terms of our body. We know that this is suffering. When we experience difficulties and unhappiness in our mind, we are also able to feel that this is suffering. Moreover, if we are not able to accomplish our personal needs, great mental distress arises. Suffering is also created when things that we do not need or with for occur. These kinds of things are the coarse type of suffering. Without needing to think too much about it, as soon as we are suffering, we are able to recognize it as such. This is referred to as the coarse type of suffering.
What is usually called the subtle type of suffering also exists in us, but we are not able to feel it within our present, coarse consciousness.
Generally speaking, all sentient beings have five aggregates: an aggregate of form, of feeling, of perception, of formation, and of consciousness. As soon as we are born in any world, we naturally have these five aggregates as the basis of our being, which is the arising place for the coarse type of suffering. We are talking now about all the coarse types of suffering. From the beginning there is a foundation, a single root, from which all coarse suffering arises. If we did not have that, coarse suffering could not arise in us. There is also a subtle type of suffering associated with this foundation, the arising place of coarse suffering. When can the subtle type of suffering be seen? When we earnestly engage in many studies regarding the present consciousness, our awareness gets steadily clearer and clearer. In this way this present consciousness will not remain coarse. We should evaluate to what degree we are able to see the subtle suffering. After studying and contemplating the present consciousness, the quality of our mind will increase. Eventually, when the qualities of our mind have increased, the mind will not remain untamed as it is now. When the mind becomes clear and calm, one will be able to understand directly, based on experience, what is the foundation, the arising place of all coarse suffering – the so-called “subtle suffering” – actually is. Therefore, in order to understand the subtle type of suffering, it is primarily necessary that we train our mind.
From where did the teacher (the Buddha) start, when he taught the Dharma? From the fact that we need to understand suffering. This is the root. There is not even a single sentient being that desires suffering. For this reason, what kind of aim do we need from the beginning? It is very important at the beginning to reflect upon the fact that we do not need suffering and that suffering is not real. Therefore, we should think, “I do not want suffering and I must abandon it!” While we reflect upon this thought, when we adopt an attitude that wishes to be freed from suffering, what methods are there to allow us to abandon it immediately? There are no immediate ones but at the same time we need to abandon this suffering. Once you decide that you do not want it, you should timely investigate where this suffering initially comes from. For that it is important to recognize the foundation, the root which is the arising place of suffering. The second point in this context is about the cause and the root of suffering, which are clinging to self and negative emotions.
There are negative emotions that disturb our mind. These negative emotions that disturb us and others are thoughts of hatred, anger and jealousy. When the mind becomes entirely coarse and evil it can also make the mind of others coarse, evil and unhappy. A mind like this has no peace and happiness. Doubts and misery constitute this dark, negative mind. It is said that this is the root of all your suffering.
In our world, even animals, which are non-human beings, have from the beginning a problem due to the notion of “I”; first, “I” need something good for me. Because of the notion of “I”, “I” think to have great hardships and discontentment is not desirable, and how great it is to be joyous and happy. However, “I” think very little about the fact that it is not good whenever others are suffering and “I” faintly have wishful thoughts about how good it is if others are joyous and happy.
Most people think that when suffering occurs to them it is not good and that it is good if joy and happiness comes about. Therefore, there is always great ego-fixation and great clinging to their self in their minds. All the disturbances of the entire world come out of that fixation and clinging. The Buddhist name we use to describe it is “snyon mongs” – negative emotions. Whenever these so-called negative emotions make the mind coarse, then no happiness or joy can be generated in that mind. As soon as these negative emotions have made the mind unsuitable, even obvious joy and happiness that we might feel will come to an end. After they are exhausted, they will turn into suffering, unless authentic joy and happiness are permanently present. We might be happy for days, weeks or months, but for as long as we are, it will always be transitory and thus we are never permanently joyous and happy. In that way joy and happiness are going to change. Because there is nothing other than suffering, it will turn into suffering and is therefore referred to as negative emotions. In order for us to have authentic happiness, we have to give up our self-grasping, ego-fixation, and have an altruistic mind, and sincere love for others. If we generate a mind that loves, cares and benefits others as much as we care for ourselves, we can attain joy and happiness. If this is not the case, if joy and happiness could be attained by chasing after abundance and wealth, reputation, accomplishments and charisma, the entire world should be happy. However, this is not the case, because even if there is wealth, reputation, power and authority, suffering does not decrease. That is why authentic happiness is to have a good heart, a mind that loves and cares for others – in short to be able to care for others in the same way as we care for ourselves. If one is able to increase such thoughts towards all beings, not just humans, within this world, joy and happiness can come into being. We can reach this conclusion if we think about our own experience. Therefore we should know in the present context that the cause of suffering is negative emotions and the main one among them is clinging to a self. Besides the main cause of suffering that I have presented, which is clinging to a self, there is also suffering created in the context of the conduct of our body and speech. It is said that the untamed behavior of body and speech, which was caused by that ego clinging and inflicts harm on others, is the source of all karma. In these two words I have mentioned suffering and the cause of suffering. When we think about suffering and its cause, we might think that there are methods to directly overcome this suffering, but such methods are not genuine ones. Why is that? Suffering arises in us again and again, and there are no ordinary means in our world to be able to permanently exhaust it. Because of that, it is very important to apply the most profound method, which implies that we abandon our evil nature, and our coarse and untamed mind. Confidence can grow through experiencing this.
After we resolve the method to exhaust suffering, when we investigate where it comes from, we understand that this suffering arises from negative emotions. If we overcome and abandon those negative emotions, we can exhaust the suffering, which results from it.
I will now explain the truth about the cessation of suffering. If we have abandoned afflictions and self-clinging that cause the mind to be coarse, suffering will completely be exhausted as a result. We will then be able to attain authentic joy and happiness, and permanently and completely terminate suffering, regardless of the circumstances. It is said that we can definitely attain authentic, permanent joy and happiness.
Then, what kind of method should be taught to exhaust suffering and the negative emotions which are the cause of that suffering? Next, as I speak about the sequence of the method and other related issues, I am going to discuss the truth of the path. Within the path, there are many Buddhist views to study – the views and the philosophical concepts pertaining to the different vehicles, the lower, the great, and so forth. As there are many, we cannot study all of them and it is also not really necessary. We need to condense them into one essence. The essence of every path we all need to understand is generally called the Buddhist view. It consists of three sections. The first is renunciation. Initially however one should understand that samsara is suffering. However much we try to accomplish joy and happiness, we are never able to achieve it, nor to permanently and lastingly eliminate suffering while we stay within samsara. Having reflected upon that, it is taught at the very beginning that one should be able to recognize that samsara has the nature of suffering, that it is defective, and that because its nature is suffering, one is never separated from suffering while remaining in it.
當他在中藏見到噶瑪巴的時候，帕就再次要求噶瑪巴允許他繼續做嚴謹孤獨的閉關。這一次，噶瑪巴派一個朋友陪他，於是，他在措瓦南措(Tsowa Nangtso)內外待了五年，仍舊是只以三摩地與禪定身(Rassyana)為食。由那兒他再遷徒到不同的地方，例如：牡丹蒼(Mondam Tsang)、卓我龍(Drowo Lung)、桑瀑(Sang Phug)以及香哺康蕊(Shambu Khangri)，在每一地停留一年的時間。在這麼多年裏，他不曾煮食，他只依靠禪定身維生。他專注於出離、精進、虔誠與菩提心，他主要的修持是生起次第，他修習氣、脈、明點與大手印。多年來始終如一，他對他的根本上師有異於常人的絕對信心，他對眾生則有偉大的慈心與悲心。當他從這一山遷往另一座山時，他會遇到一些學者與成就者，由他們那裏，他接受了一些稀有珍貴的法教。也是在這種時機裏，他正式剃度成為比丘。雖然，他有無與倫比的精神經驗與了悟，札西帕就總是依據戒侓行事。四十歲的時候，他決定要到蓮花生大士與金剛瑜伽女的烏金西方淨土(Western Land of Uddiyana)，他請示噶瑪巴是留在噶瑪巴身邊比較好，或是去烏金淨土較好？噶瑪巴回答道：「全憑你自己的決定，我將同意你做的任何決定。」札西帕就自己思索道，沒有任何佛、蓮花生大士、金剛瑜伽女比我自己的根本上師還偉大，根本上師噶瑪巴是十方三世諸佛的俱身示見。所以，以專一的虔誠與信任，他決定留在噶瑪巴身邊。當他告訴噶瑪巴他的決定後，大寶法王回答道：「你留在我身邊非常好，但你必須記住，即使是在夢中，你都要保持著清明覺性，並專一的向我祈請，永遠永遠不要忘記我，即使在夢中亦然。」所以，由於他的虔誠，他不曾與他的根本上師分開。事實上，他是對於自己的上師虔誠的活樣本，他的範例是對其他弟子們的身教。夜裏，他總是保持著明覺。並不斷地對噶瑪巴做祈請。有個夜晚，當他保持在如上的狀態時，有位穿白衣者出現，要他回家鄉一下，以探望母親，並給與她一些特殊的口傳。當他由明覺狀態回甦後，他生起強烈的感覺想回去看一看照顧他的母親，他過去不曾有此種經驗，因為他非常思念母親，所以，他要求噶瑪巴允許他回家，噶瑪巴欣然同意了。於是，札西帕就告別了上師，便朝家鄉歸去。半途，到了巴休山(Basau)時，他以遍知的智慧心觀照，得知他的母親已過世。他還觀到母親以一個智慧瑜伽女的身形往天界去。當母親看到他時，她說：「偉大的悉地！請賜予我上樂金剛灌頂，如此我才能獲得全然的證悟。」透過他自然成就的三摩地，他為母親做了完整的上樂金剛灌頂，並唱了許多首金剛歌。